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A dataset of tetrapod occurrences ranging from the Carboniferous through to the Early Triassic, from the Palaeobiology Database. Dataset includes a range of variables relevant to common palaeobiological analyses, relating to identification, geography, environmental context, traits and more. Additional information can be found here. The downloaded data is unaltered, with the exception of removing some superfluous variables, and can be used to demonstrate how the functions in the palaeoverse package might be applied.




A data frame with 5270 rows and 32 variables:


Reference number given to the particular occurrence in the Paleobiology Database


Reference number given to the Paleobiology Database collection (locality) that the occurrence belongs to


Taxon name as it appears in the original publication, which may include expressions of uncertainty (e.g. "cf.", "aff.", "?") or novelty (e.g. "n. gen.", "n. sp.")


The taxonomic rank, or resolution, of the identified name


Taxon name once the identified name has passed through the Paleobiology Database's internal taxonomy, which collapses synonyms, amends binomials which have been altered (e.g. species moving to another genus) and updates taxa which are no longer valid (e.g. nomina dubia)


The taxonomic rank, or resolution, of the accepted name


The oldest (or only) time interval within which the occurrence is thought to have been deposited


The youngest time interval within which the occurrence is thought to have been deposited

max_ma, min_ma

The age range given to the occurrence

phylum, class, order, family, genus

The taxa (of decreasing taxonomic level) which the occurrence is identified as belonging to

abund_value, abund_unit

The number (and units) of fossils attributed to the occurrence

lng, lat

The modern-day longitude and latitude of the fossil locality


The name of the Paleobiology Database collection which the occurrence belongs to, typically a spatio-temporally restricted locality


The country (code) where the fossils were discovered

formation, stratgroup, member

The geological units from which the fossils were collected


The biozone which the occurrence is attributed to


The main lithology of the beds in the section where the fossils were collected


The inferred environmental conditions in the place of deposition


The mode of preservation of the fossils found in the collection (not necessarily of that specific occurrence), which will include information on whether they are body or trace fossils


The environment within which the taxon is thought to have lived, collated within the Paleobiology Database

motility, life_habit, diet

Various types of trait data for the taxon, collated within the Paleobiology Database


Compiled by Bethany Allen, current version downloaded on 14th July 2022. See item descriptions for details.


Uhen MD et al. (2023). Paleobiology Database User Guide Version 1.0. PaleoBios, 40 (11). doi:10.5070/P9401160531 .